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Media Literacy
5 Media Literacy Questions
This lesson details the 5 Media Literacy Questions we need to ask every time we consume information to ensure we learn the most from it. Who created this message? Which techniques are used to attract my attention? How might different people interpret this message? Which lifestyles, values, and points of view are represented -- or missing? Why is this message being sent? Updated Dec. 2023

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June 7, 2022


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This post provides the five most important Media Literacy Questions we information consumers need to ask to make better decisions.

Asking these media literacy questions helps us process information better by expanding traditional reading and writing literacy to include all new communication forms.

Asking the right media literacy questions can help you make better decisions.

Asking these media literacy questions helps us improve our media literacy and information literacy skills.

The reason to be “Literate” is clear. Being able to understand the symbols used by the community to transmit knowledge has always been critical to the community’s success.

In the past, all that was needed was reading and writing literacy since paper and ink were the only medium for information transmission.

With the domestication of the electron in the middle of the 19th century, we have developed a few more media we use to transmit information.

The National Association for Media Literacy Education defines media literacy as “the ability to ACCESS, ANALYZE, EVALUATE, CREATE, and ACT using all forms of communication” and says it “empowers people to be critical thinkers and makers, effective communicators, and active citizens.”

Though some believe media literacy and digital literacy are separate but complementary, I believe they’re really one and the same.

They both focus on skills that help community members be critical media consumers and creators.

And both are rooted in inquiry-based learning — asking questions about what we see, read, hear, and create.

What is needed to be considered “literate” in the 21st Century is an evolution from what was considered “literate” in before we could control electrons.

In the old days, we all learned print literacy — how to read and write.

Today we also need to learn multimedia literacy — how to “read and write” media messages in different forms, whether it’s a photo, video, website, app, videogame, or anything else.

The most powerful way to improve learning is to put these skills into practice through both critiquing media we consume and analyzing the media we create.

So, how should we learn to critique and analyze media?

Most leaders in the digital and media literacy community use some version of the five key questions:

The 5 Media Literacy Questions

Question 1. Who created this message?

“Pull back the curtain” and recognize that all media have an author and an agenda. All of the media we encounter and consume is constructed by someone with a particular vision, background, and agenda. We need to understand how we should question both the messages we see as well the platforms on which messages are shared.

Question 2. Which techniques are used to attract my attention?

Whether it’s a billboard or a book, a TV show or movie, a mobile app, or an online ad, different forms of media have unique ways to get our attention and keep us engaged. Of course, digital media are changing all the time – constant updates and rapid innovations are the name of the game. This often comes in the form of new and innovative techniques to capture our attention – sometimes without us even realizing it.

Question 3. How might different people interpret this message?

This question helps students consider how all of us bring our own individual backgrounds, values, and beliefs to how we interpret media messages. For any piece of media, there are often as many interpretations as there are viewers. Any time we are interpreting a media message, it’s important for us to consider how someone from a different background might interpret the same message in a very different way. Ask questions like: What about your background might influence your interpretation? Or, Who might be the target audience for this message?

Question 4. Which lifestyles, values, and points of view are represented — or missing?

Just as we all bring our own backgrounds and values to how we interpret what we see, media messages themselves are embedded with values and points of view. We need to question and consider how certain perspectives or voices might be missing from a particular message. If voices or perspectives are missing, how does that affect the message being sent? We need to consider the impact of certain voices being left out and ask them: What points of view would you like to see included, and why?

Question 5. Why is this message being sent?

With this question, we look at the purpose of the message. Is it to inform, entertain, or persuade, or could it be some combination of these? Also, we need to explore possible motives behind why certain messages have been sent. Was it to gain power, profit, or influence? For more advanced learners, examining the economic structures behind various media industries will come into play.

As communicators, we can think about how to weave these five questions into our instruction, helping learners to think critically about media. A few scenarios could include lessons where we consume news and current events. You could even use these questions to critique the textbooks and films you already use. Eventually, as we model this type of critical thinking, asking these questions themselves will become second nature.

For more information on the important media literacy questions:

@lantis Posts:

Summary of the 5 Media Literacy Questions.

1. Who created this message?

2. Which techniques are used to attract my attention?

3. How might different people interpret this message?

4. Which lifestyles, values, and points of view are represented — or missing?

5. Why is this message being sent?